Prevalence of self-reported hypertension and diabetes and associated risk factors among university employees in Jos, Nigeria
Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCD) are emerging, and their risk factors are becoming more common as lifestyles change and rates of urbanization increase. We determined the prevalence of self-reported hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) and their relationship to common NCD risk factors among university employees.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 884 adults employed at the University of Jos, Nigeria. They were evaluated using the Step 1 of the WHO-STEPS questionnaire. We used logistic regression analysis to evaluate the common NCD risk factors associated with self-reported hypertension and DM.
Results: Significant alcohol consumption was present in 77 (8.7%) while 26 (2.5%) were current cigarette smokers. Two hundred and seventy nine (31.5%) engaged in moderate intensity exercises like brisk walking and cycling for 10 minutes on a regular basis. The median weekly fruit and vegetable intake were 3 times (range 0-8) and 3 times (range 0-7) respectively. A total of 333 (39.7%) and 64 (7.3%) participants had a prior diagnosis of hypertension and DM respectively. Self-reported hypertension was associated with the female sex (OR = 2.30; 95% CI: 1.65-3.19), increasing age (OR = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.06-1.10) and alcohol use (OR=1.38; 95% CI: 1.00- 1.91), while self-reported DM was associated with increasing age (OR = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.05-1.12). Neither hypertension nor DM was associated with physical activity, smoking status or fruit and vegetable intake.
Conclusion: This study provides evidence on self-reported NCDs in a developing economy. Concerted efforts to implement NCD prevention measures will serve to reduce the high burden of NCDs.
Keywords: Non-communicable disease, Diabetes mellitus, Hypertension, Lifestyle, risk factors