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Screening for chronic kidney disease and its risk factors in Oghara, Nigeria: a World Kidney Day 2014 report

Ogochukwu C. Okoye, Henry Ovwasa, Anthony G. Kweki, Isoken Idenigbe, Nyemike Awunor, Ayo B. Odonmeta, Nilum Rajora

Abstract


Background: The risk factors associated with CKD such as hypertension, diabetes and obesity remain prevalent globally, resulting in a high prevalence of CKD especially in developing countries. Screening for CKD and its' risk factors is recommended for high-risk population. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of CKD in a semiurban community in Nigeria.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the teaching hospital premises at Oghara, after a world kidney day (WKD) health awareness campaign was undertaken in the community. A total of 135 subjects were interviewed and the following measurements were performed: blood pressure, body mass index, blood glucose, dipstick urinalysis, serum creatinine and estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using CKDEPI.

Results: Mean age was 40 ± 13 years and 69.6% of participants were young. Male to female ratio was 1:4. The prevalence of proteinuria was 4.4% while 10.7% of all subjects had CKD (GFR <60ml/min). Although 11.1% of participants were known hypertensives only 6.7% had high blood pressure on screening. Other risk factors identified were Diabetes mellitus (10.3%), family of history of hypertension (14.1%), family of history of diabetes (9.6%), family of history CKD (1.5%) and obesity (11.9%). Proteinuria, diabetes and family history of hypertension were significantly associated with CKD.

Conclusions: CKD and its risk factors are common in the population. Dipstick proteinuria remains a useful and significant indicator of CKD. Community screening for the risk factors of CKD in developing countries is realistic and should be encouraged as a public health priority.

Keywords: Chronic kidney disease, Diabetes mellitus, Hypertension, Proteinuria




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