Gender Division and Utilization of Natural Resources: A Case Study of Mindu-Tulieni and Makombe Villages in Bagamoyo District, Tanzania
This paper explores special aspects of gender and utilization of natural resources in Mindu-Tulieni and Makombe villages in Bagamoyo District. It farther focuses on gendered decision-making and negotiation over the management of land, forests, livestock and water in Bagamoyo District. In total, 69 heads of households were interviewed and answered the questionnaires in the study villages. Focus group discussions were also conducted in the study villages. Findings have shown that attention to gender differences in property rights can improve natural resources use, environmental sustainability, equity and empowerment of resource users. This study found that policies and approaches are inadequately gendered and particularly omit the gender relationship in management and utilization of natural resources. Although it is difficult to generalize across locality, cultures and resources, it is important to identify peoples’ rights to land, trees (forests) and water. Different methods are used in acquiring land and the way land is transmitted from one user to another. Roles of men and women in natural resources use, management and conservation are taken on board. Findings have further shown that gender, culture and structure of tribes’ constrains the natural resources management. The results suggest that discrimination basing on resource ownership, distribution and utilization should be eliminated. People should be educated through seminars, radios, televisions and newspapers. Special attention should be paid on treating male and female on rational and equal basis.
Keywords: Gender, Gender division, Natural resources, Property-right, Maasai, Kwere