The Prevalence of Ecto and Endoparasites in Pigs in Urban and Peri-Urban Areas of Mwanza City, Tanzania
Parasitism is the most serious constraint causing continuous ill-health
and lowered productivity in livestock in Tanzania and sub-Saharan Africa as a whole. This study was carried out in urban and peri-urban areas of Mwanza city and aimed to determine the prevalence of parasitic infections in pigs kept by small holder livestock keepers. A random sample of 14 urban farmers with a total of 213 pigs and 14 peri-urban farmers with a total of 155 pigs were selected. Faecal samples were collected from each pig. Ectoparasites were examined and their morphological characteristics recorded. Direct smear floatation and sedimentation methods were employed to detect endoparasites in the faeces. The prevalence of different types of endoparasites in urban Mwanza city pigs were: Strongylid
nematodes (11.7%) Entomoeba ssp (27.2%), Ascaris suum (1.8%) Balntidium coli (3.8%) and Coccidia spp (3.3%) and the only ectoparasites found was sarcoptic mange (1.4%). In the peri -urban area the endoparasites found were Entomoeba spp (51.6%), Strongylid nematodes (9.7%), Coccidia spp (5.8%). Ascaris suum (12.9%) Balantidium coli 20.6%) and Trichurus suis (3.8%) and the ectoparasites was sarcoptic mange (21.9%). Every piggery where samples were taken, the management system was assessed. The difference in the livestock management systems in the two areas clearly explains the observed high prevalence of parasite infection in the peri-uban compared to the urban areas of Mwanza city. The negative impact of these parasites on livestock production and their public health importance -since some of them are zoonotic in nature- cannot be underestimated. The present study validates the need to bring awareness to the farmers and the public at large so that they may embark on cost effective development of parasite control strategies.
Key words: Mwanza urban, peri-urban, endoparasites, ectoparasites, protozoa, zoonosis, Tanzania, pig.