Lack of Parental Gender Socialization of Children at Family Level and its Effects on Adulthood Gender Discrimination in Rwanda

  • Christine Kapita Umumararungu
  • Appoline Kabera Bazubagira
Keywords: : Gender Socialization, gender perceptions, gender discrimination


The paper discusses holistic integration of gender concepts at tender ages.  This study aimed toinvestigate parents’ participation in socializing children to gender equality and assess the effect of lack of parental socialization of children to gender equality. Three hundred and fifty (350) respondents were purposively selected from Kicukiro, Bugesera, Musanze, Nyanza and Nyamasheke. Data were collected through questionnaire, interviews and focus group discussion and qualitatively analyzed using content analysis. Findings revealed that there is lack of parental gender socialization of children as it is negatively perceived in Rwandan families. Gender equality is perceived by 75 % of respondents to be the cause of family conflicts and violence. Furthermore, 69% of all respondents accuse the theory of gender equality to divert females from their responsibilities which results in family dysfunctionality. In addition, 42% of respondents consider gender equality as a way of western people to disorganize developing countries. Lack of parental gender socialization of children at family level affects children's adulthood. It presents enormous and long-lasting consequences to both females and males. Respondents confirmed that there is a considerable number of females who did not attend school because fees were reserved to boys. On the other hand, male respondents confirmed that being overpowered in childhood negatively affects adulthood relationship with their wives. Socializing children to gender equality at family level from their tender ages would be one of the best strategies to eradicate Gender-Based Violence (GBV) and discrimination.

Author Biographies

Christine Kapita Umumararungu

University of Lay Adventists of Kigali (UNILAK)

Appoline Kabera Bazubagira

University of Kigali (UoK


Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 0856-6739