Pulmonary tuberculosis and resistance pattern to first line anti-tuberculosis drugs in a city of Western Nigeria
This study determines the distribution of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) among suspected patients and the resistance pattern of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to first line anti-tuberculosis drugs. 609 suspected PTB subjects (based on chest x-ray), attending tuberculosis clinic at Sacred Heart Hospital, Abeokuta, were involved in this study. Their blood samples were screened for HIV antibody using WHO strategy II, while sputum samples were screened for the presence of acid fast bacilli (AFB) using standard method. All AFB positive samples were cultured and susceptibility tests done using 1% proportion methods. Results showed that of the 609 subjects, 19.7% had PTB. The observed infection, though not statistically significant, was higher among males (21.6%) than in females. However, significant differences were observed for PTB infections amongst various age groups. Susceptibility test revealed that resistance to streptomycin was highest (33.0%) compared to other drugs, while detected multidrugresistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) was 17.5%; being higher among males (19.7%) and in subjects with PTB only (19.3). In addition, mono-resistant and poly-resistance was found in 16.5% and 9.7% of the isolates respectively. These findings suggest that the control and prevention of PTB, especially MDR-TB, should include measures aimed at identifying the source of infection and proper treatment of infected individuals.
Key Words: Gender, Pulmonary tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Susceptibility test.
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