Antidiarrhoeal property of the methanol extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn stem bark in laboratory rodents
Diarrhoea is a disease characterised by gut secretory and motility dysfunction. Anacardium occidentale stem bark decoction is used locally in management of diarrhea. This study investigated the antidairrhoeal property of the methanol extract of Anacardium occidentale stem bark in laboratory rodents. The antidiarrhoeal property of the stem bark methanol extract of Anacardium occidentale was investigated using castor oil induced diarrhoeal model in mice and Charcoal meal transit in Albino rats. There were no incidences of mortality recorded up to the dose of 5000 mg/kg extract used in the acute toxicity test. The Gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry revealed oleic-acid (45.51 %) as the predominant component. The Phytochemistry showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, steroids, flavonoids and tannins. In the castor oil model, all the test doses of the extract significantly delayed the onset of diarrheoal and decreased the total number loose faeaces. Significant reduction in the whole number and weight of feaces were observed only with 400 and 800mg/kg doses. All the three doses of the extract delayed the gastrointestinal transit of charcoal meal. The present findings demonstrated the antidiarheoal property of the stem bark extract of Anacardium occidentale being able to delay the onset of diarrhea and decrease gastrointestinal transit.
Keywords: Anacardium occidentale, Diarrheoal , motility, castor oil, charcoal meal