Current prevalence of cattle trypanosomiasis and of its vector in Alme, the infested zone of Adamawa plateau Cameroon, two decades after the tsetse eradication campaign
Livestock diseases especially cattle trypanosomiasis remains a challenge and a call for concern. A Cross sectional study was carried out on the entomological and parasitological prevalence of cattle trypanosomiasis, in the tsetse fly infested zone-Alme in Faro and Deo division, Adamaoua region Cameroon. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of bovine trypanosomiasis, apparent density and distribution of its vectors. Blood samples were randomly collected from 504 selected cattle and analyzed using the Haematocrit Centrifugation Technique (HCT); identification of different trypanosomes was achieved using the method of May−Grünwald Giemsa. An entomological survey was conducted using laveissiére type blue biconical traps (n=11 traps; 9 traps in the Alme Ranch and 2 around the Faro Game Reserve). The overall prevalence of trypanosome infection in the study area was 29.4%. However, there was a statistical significant (P<0.05) difference of trypanosome species with site. There were single as well as mixed infections. The single infections identified were: Trypanosoma congolense (14.09%), Trypanosoma vivax (6.15%) and Trypanosoma brucei (3.37%) and mixed infections were Trypanosoma congolense+Trypanosoma vivax (2.38%), Trypanosoma congolense+Trypanosoma brucei (0.39%), Trypanosoma vivax+Trypanosoma brucei (0.39%) and Trypanosoma congolense+Trypanosoma vivax+ Trypanosoma brucei (2.57%). Entomological findings indicated that Glossina morsitans (47.27%) was the only tsetse fly species caught in the study area with others (44.5%), Stomoxys (4.50%) and Tabanus (3.59%). The overall apparent mean tsetses and biting flies’ density of 9.05 and 1.46 flies/trap were recorded respectively. Current prevalence is witnessing a decrease in this area due to improved farmer’s knowledge in the usage of barriers such as trypanocides and screens in disease management. Maintenance of these barriers can bring the disease to a bay in this trypanosomiasis risk zone of the Adamawa plateau.
Keywords: Cattle trypanosomiasis, prevalence, Alme and Adamawa plateau Cameroon.
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