Ocular bacterial flora and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of a diabetic population in Cameroon: an analytical study
The ocular flora can be a contributing factor to potentially devastating eye infections, especially under certain conditions such as diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of diabetes on the bacterial conjunctival flora and to assess its susceptibility to antibiotics. In an analytical cross-sectional study conducted in three hospitals in the department of Ndé-Cameroon, we included diabetic and non-diabetic participants. Samples were obtained by swabbing the lower conjunctival fornix. Gram stain and culture were performed and antibiotic sensitivity determined in case of bacterial growth. A positive culture was found in 33/40 (82.5%) diabetic participants and 16/40 (40%) non-diabetic participants. Diabetic participants showed a more frequent positive flora for Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while the majority of non-diabetic patient’s flora were Bacillus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. In diabetics, resistance of Staphyloccocus Coagulase-negative strains was observed in 80-100% of cases for Oxacillin and Trimethoprin-Sulfamethoxy. For Gram-negative strains, resistance was 80-100% for Penicillin, Oxacillin and Cefixime in diabetics. A positive culture was more frequently found in diabetic participants with a difference for the composition and antibiotic susceptibility compared to healthy people. This information may provide a better guideline for the prevention and the management of ocular diseases.
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Keywords: Diabetes, ocular flora, bacteria, susceptibility profile, Staphylococcus