Anticoccidial activity of Khaya senegalensis, Senna siamea and Chamaecrista rotundifolia in chicken (Gallus gallus)
Anticoccidial drug residues in poultry products, prejudicial to consumer health and resistance problem of some Eimeria strain to conventional drugs have led to the search of alternative ways of controlling coccidiosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anticoccidial activity of the extract of Khaya senegalensis, Chamaecrista rotundifolia, and Senna siamea in a completely randomized design. The study was carried out on 23 day-old male chicks (Gallus gallus) experimentally infected with 15 000 oocysts of Eimeria tenella and treated with the extract of these plants. There were five (5) experimental groups. Three (3) infected groups treated with leaf extract of Senna siamea, Chamaecrista rotundifolia and tree balk extract of Khaya senegalensis. The tow (2) remaining groups were the infected treated with amprolium a conventional anticoccidial drug and the infected untreated control. Body weight gain, feed efficiency, lesion score, proportion of bloody droppings, and excretion of coccidia oocysts were assessed during 14 days post infection. The results showed the effectiveness of the extract of Senna siamea leaves (cassia) and Khaya senegalensis bark, through the improvement of body weight gain and feed conversion ratio and the reduction of lesion scores and oocysts excretion. The oocysts excretion reduction rate was 80% for Senna siamea and Khaya senegalensis compared to the infected untreated control group. Senna siamea and Khaya senegalensis extract demonstrated an obvious anticoccidial effect in the current study. However, further investigations are needed to determine the appropriate doses, the best mode of the herbs utilization, preventive or curative, the best extraction method of active ingredient and the parts of the plants with better anticoccidial effect.
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Keywords: Khaya senegalensis, Chamaecrista rotundifolia, Senna siamea, coccidiosis, Eimeria tenailla, chicken