Prevalence and risk behaviours of camel brucellosis transmission in the peri-urban dairy basin of Niamey, Niger
Considered as one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world and dangerous for human and animal health, brucellosis has been studied mainly in cattle and small ruminants but rarely in camels. The lack of data in Niger on this pathology in camels has aroused particular interest given the breeding method and the dietary habits of urban and peri-urban consumers. It is in this context that we conducted the first cross-sectional study on camel brucellosis in Niger, in the peri-urban dairy basin of Niamey. The general objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of camel brucellosis and the risk behaviours for its transmission at the animal-human interface. Thus, 275 serum samples and 75 camel milk samples were collected from 20 farms in 11 peri-urban localities of Niamey. The serum samples were analysed by 2 methods, namely the Rose Bengal test and indirect ELISA. The overall seroprevalence obtained with the serum samples was 4%. All 75 milk samples tested by indirect ELISA were negative. In addition, 30 camel farmers were surveyed to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding brucellosis. The survey revealed that 96.7% of the farmers were not aware of brucellosis, the species affected and the modes of transmission. Most of participants stated that camels were in frequent contact with sheep, goats, cattle, and other species. In case of abortion, the placenta and runt are handled with bare hands and sometimes buried or thrown away. All respondents consumed raw camel milk and stated that the milk sold is not pasteurised. These elements constitute risk behaviours for the transmission of this zoonosis and urgent measures should be taken. However, epidemiological investigations must be carried out continuously in order to monitor the evolution of this major zoonosis and to establish an adapted prophylaxis that takes into account this species, in order to protect the herd but also public health.
Keywords: Camel brucellosis, seroprevalence, lacto-prevalence, KAP study, Niamey-Niger.
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