The antisickling effects of some edible vegetables
The antisickling effects of the extracts of three vegetables highly consumed in Nigeria were investigated which included: Allium cepa (Onion), Allium sativum (Garlic) and Telferia occidentalis (Ugu). The extracts were partitioned into, the fat-soluble (FAS), the water-soluble (WAS), the butanol-soluble (BUS) and the crude aqueous extracts (CAEs) respectively. Free amino acid concentrations of the extracts expressed in mg/100g are: Telferia occidentalis WAS (600±0.1), BUS (242±0.11), FAS (175±0.11) and CAE (2890±0.1); Allium cepa, WAS (1225±0.1), BUS (200±0.0), FAS (210±0.1) and CAE (1890±0.2); Allium sativum, WAS (900±0.1), BUS (225±0.2 mg), FAS (120±0.11 mg) and CAE (2800±0.2 mg) respectively. The total vitamin C concentration of the samples expressed in mg/100g are: Telferia occidentalis, WAS (750±0.2), CAE (2000±0.0); Allium cepa WAS (628±0.2), CAE (900±0.1); Allium sativum, WAS (1100±0.12), CAE
(2100±0.11). Hemoglobin polymerization inhibition and the relative percent inhibition were estimated: Telferia occidentalis WAS (69.63%), BUS (29.91%), FAS (24.77%) and CAE (75.27%); Allium sativum, WAS (93.73%), BUS (90.95%), FAS (89.79%) and CAE (95.43%); Allium cepa, WAS( 26.61%), BUS ( 40.19%), FAS (31.31%) and CAE (60.28%) respectively. Amino acid analysis revealed the following: Phe, Arg, Lys, Ser, Met and others. All fractions of the samples exhibited high level of improvement in the Fe2+/Fe3+ratio: Telferia occidentalis, (19.74-50.64%), Allium cepa (108.10-114.84%) and Allium sativum (287.50-400.21%). Based on the free amino acid, the vitamin C concentrations, the inhibition of HbSS polymerization and the improvement in the Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio, these vegetables/extracts would nonetheless provide adequate nutritional and antisickling effectiveness necessary for the management of sickle cell disease and other related syndromes.
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Keywords: Vegetable extracts, free amino acids, vitamin C, sickle cell disease, hemoglobin.