Prevalence and antibiotic sensitivity of bacterial agents involved in lower respiratory tract infections

  • V Olugbue
  • S Onuoha

Abstract

The prevalence and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of bacterial agents involved in Lower Respiratory Tract Infections (LRTI) was investigated. A total of 285 patients presenting with LRTI defined by a new or increasing cough, productive sputum, chest pain, fever, anorexia, haemoptysis, headache and throat ache were enrolled with their consent. The sputum specimen was cultured on the appropriate bacteriological media. Bacterial isolates were identified by standard laboratory and biochemical methods. Lower respiratory tract infection was found prevalent in 131 (46.0%) cases. Males 83 (63.4%) were found more at risk to LRTI than females, 48 (36.6%). Lower respiratory tract infection was found to be most prevalent in age group 40 – 49 years 39 (29.8%). Streptococcus pneumoniae, a Gram-positive bacteria, was identified as the most prevalent bacterial isolate 48 (34.3%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae 29 (20.7%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 22 (15.7%) and Staphylococcus aureus 15 (10.7%). The overall antibiotic sensitivity test of the isolates showed
ciprofloxacin 72 (51.4%), chloramphenicol 67 (47.9%) and gentamicin 39 (27.9%) as the most potent antibiotic against Gram–positive and Gram–negative isolates. High resistance was recorded for caftazidime, ceftizoxime, nalidixic acid, ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, cloxacillin and penicillin at 100% each. This study recorded a low percentage of sensitivity to the antibiotic agents tested.
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eISSN: 1997-342X
print ISSN: 1991-8631