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Hydro-alcoholic extracts of some plant species growing in two different geographical regions (Democratic Republic of Congo and Madagascar) were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on two malaria parasites strains (P. falciparum FcM29 & P. yoelii subsp nigeriensis) and cytotoxicity towards leukaemia P- 388 cell lines. Results indicate that, the antiplasmodial activity of tested plants varied geographically. Plants growing in continent ecosystem are more active in vitro while their ecological equivalence inhabiting island ecosystems are more active in vivo. It would be conclude that, the development of phytomedicines from plants of different geographical regions selected by bioguided fractionation would allow the populations to reduce the health care cost. The chemotaxonomic approach has also permitted us to detect moderate antiplasmodial activities in Neobegua mahafaliensis, a plant species not previously reported as antimalarial in the traditional medicine knowlegde of Madagascar. The use of a pharmacological property such as the antimalarial activity, in this study, in order to establish genetic filiations between the plants species is an original approach.
Keywords: Malaria, medicinal plants, cytotoxicity, Dem. Rep. of Congo, Madagascar, phenotypic marker, genetic filiation