Impacts of Climate Change on Food Security and Poverty Reduction
AbstractDynamic interactions between and within the bio-geophysical and human environments lead to the production, processing, distribution, preparation and consumption of food, resulting in food systems that underpin food security. Food systems encompass food availability, utilization and access, so that food security is diminished when food systems are stressed. Such stresses may be induced by a range of factors or drivers in addition to climate change and other environmental changes. Climate change may affect food security in several ways ranging from direct effects on crop production to changes in markets, food prices and supply. Because of the multiple socio-economic and biophysical factors affecting food systems and hence food security, the capacity to adapt food systems to reduce their vulnerability to climate change is not uniform. This paper focuses on three of these driving forces – climate change, animal disease and plant pests. We have concentrated on their implications for food security, but have also given concentrations to their impact on human health as this is another important factor determining human well being/poverty levels.
Keywords: Climate change, food security, food systems, poverty reduction