in vivo cytogenotoxic and haematotoxic screening of a triherbal pill produced for the treatment of hemorrhoids among Nigerians in Alliumcepa and Mus musculus
There is unprecedented increase in the use of medicinal plants as source of therapeutics for human sustenance due to their efficacies. The assumption that these plants are very safe had increased their indiscriminate consumption, which can lead to human exposure to some harmful phytochemicals and possible contaminants. The cytogenotoxic and hematotoxic effects of a tri-herbal pill claimed to cure hemorrhoids and backache among Nigerians were investigated in Allium cepa (onion plant) and Mus musculus (mice). Allium cepa was treated with 800, 1200, 1600, 2500 and 0 mg/L (control; tap water) while Mus musculus with 600, 900, 1200, 1500 mg/L of the triherbal pill and distilled water (negative) and cyclophosphamide (20 mg/kg bwt; positive) served as controls. Mice were examined for signs of toxicity, alterations in hematological indices and frequency of bone marrow micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE), while Allium cepa for root length inhibition, mitotic index and chromosome aberrations. Diarrhea, weakness and sluggishness in movement were common clinical signs observed in mice exposed to 1500 mg/L of the pill. There was significant (p<0.05) increase in erythrocytes, haemoglobin, haematocrits, leucocytes, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin, but insignificant (p>0.05) decrease in mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration in the treated mice compared to the control (distilled water). Tri-herbal pills significantly increased frequency of MNPCE by 2.13 to 6.45 folds in the treated mice compared to the control. Also significant decrease in root growth and mitotic index, and increase percentage chromosome aberrations was observed in the A. cepa compared to the control (tap water). The tri-herbal pill induced cytotoxicity and DNA damage in A. cepa and mice, and altered haematological parameters in mice. This suggests public health issues in case of indiscriminate consumption of such supplementary.
Keywords: Allium Test, Cytogenotoxicity, Haematology, Herbal Drugs, Mice, Micronucleus Test.