Proximate composition, phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of the methanol and acetone extracts of Vitex doniana fruit pulp
The phytochemical constituents and the antimicrobial activity of the methanolic and acetone extracts of Vitex doniana (Sweet) fruit were investigated to ascertain its biological potentials. The study revealed that the fruit contained alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, phenols, tannins, steroids and cardiac glycoside. The percentage proximate composition of the fruit of the plant were as follows: moisture 10.00%, ash 18.00%, crude fibre 4.50%, crude protein 0.60%, carbohydrate 43.20% and crude lipids 23.70%. The elemental analysis confirmed the presence of calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium. The methanolic and acetone extracts of the fruit of the plant were tested against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureues, Pseudomonas areuginosa and Klebsiella pnuemoniae by the agar (Mullen-Hinton) diffusion method. The zone of inhibition for the methanol extract ranged between 10.50 to 21.00 (mm) for all concentrations (1000, 500 and 250 mg/ml) . While the acetone extract only inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli to 7.50mm at a concentration of 1000mg/ml. The results obtained indicate that the fruit extracts have antimicrobial importance and can be utilized in the treatment of some ailments and malnutrition.
Keywords: antimicrobial, extract, phytochemical, proximate, Vitex doniana