Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and genotoxicity potentials of the fractions of Archidium ohioense (Schimp. Ex Mull) extract
This study evaluated red blood cell (rbc) membrane stabilization and albumin denaturation, xanthine oxidase and lipoxygenase inhibitory activities of n-hexane (Hex), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), butanol (BuOH) and aqueous (Aq) fractions of Archidium ohioense methanolic extract using standard procedures. Diclofenac was used as a positive control for both rbc membrane stabilization and albumin denaturation studies while allopurinol and ascorbic acid respectively were used as positive control for xanthine oxidase and lipoxygenase inhibition measurements. Furthermore, genotoxic effect of the two most active fractions of the extract (EtOAc and DCM) on Allium cepa meristematic cells was investigated. Results showed that all the fractions inhibited heat-induced bovine serum albumin denaturation activity with the EtOAc and DCM fractions exhibiting better inhibitory activity than other fractions. Also, all the fractions except aqueous fraction compared favourably with the diclofenac (maximum stability of 86.94±0.00%) and protected stressed erythrocyte membrane at various concentrations tested. The maximum percentage erythrocyte stabilities were 97.39±0.00, 96.23±0.00, 91.85±0.00, 87.71±0.00 and 23.93±0.01% for A. ohioense EtOAc, DCM, n-Hex, BuOH and Aq fractions, respectively. It was observed that EtOAc fraction, DCM fraction and ascorbic acid inhibited lipoxygenase activity by 70.00±2.36, 75.00±1.67, and 62.50±8.84% respectively while 71.67±3.54, 50.00±0.00 and 77.50±1.76% of xanthine oxidase inhibition were elicited by EtOAc fraction, DCM fraction and allopurinol respectively. EtOAc and DCM fractions showed significant reduction in mitotic index and root lengths of Allium cepa at higher concentrations. Also, sticky chromosomes were observed for EtOAc (300 μg/ml) and DCM (300 -350 μg/ml) fractions. It was concluded that A. ohioense plant possesses antiinflammatory potential with the EtOAc and DCM fractions demonstrating very strong anti-inflammatory activity and compare favourably with standard reference drug (diclofenac). However, these fractions inhibited cell division of A. cepa cells at higher concentration.
Keywords: Archidium ohioense, Lipoxygenase, Xanthine oxidase, Allium cepa, Genotoxicity, Mitotic index