Effects of exposing adults of Amblyomma variegatum to neem cake extracts in traps baited with semiochemicals under semi–laboratory conditions
The efficacy of a trap baited with an attractant blend comprising of attraction aggregation- attachment pheromone (AAAP), 1-octen-3-ol and CO2 and treated with Neem (Azadirachta indica) cake extracts (0.6% of azadirachtin) to attract and expose the ticks, Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius) (Acari: Ixodidae) to the active constituents of the cake was evaluated in circular field plots.. Ticks were released at various distances from trap placed at the center of the plots. Ticks that arrived at the trap (and exposed to the extracts) and those in control plots were collected and their mortality was monitored in the laboratory over a three-week period. All concentrations of the neem extracts caused mortality of A. variegatum adults with highest mortality rate (97.8%) recorded in the concentration of 30 % of extracts. The mortality of the ticks was also dependent upon the time ticks were exposed to the extracts. The findings suggest the possibility of using semiochemicals-baited traps in combination with neem extracts for off-host control of these ticks in smallholder farms.
Key words: Amblyomma variegatum, traps, Azadirachta indica, semiochemicals