Effects of ethanolic extracts of Ackee apple (Blighia sapida) on biochemical parameters of Clarias gariepinus juveniles
The influence of ethanolic stem bark extract of Ackee Apple (Blighia sapida) was assessed on hepatic and renal functions in juvenile Clarias gariepinus. Fish were exposed to graded concentrations (1.6, 3.2, 6.4 and 12.8 g/L) of the extract for 21 days. The control group had 0.00g/L extract content. 10 fish were used per treatment and each treatment was replicated three times. Physico-chemical parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen and temperature) were monitored throughout exposure period. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected and assessed for some indices of hepatic and renal functions. Results showed that extract at 1.6 g/L did not induce significant (p>0.05) alternation in the serum activities of total protein, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and uric acid when compared with the control. However, at higher extract concentrations the effects increased significantly (p<0.05) with increasing concentrations of extract. The highest effects were observed at 12.8 g/L having total protein of 8.51mmol/L, AST (14.39 mmol/L), ALT (16.99 mmol/L), ALP (66.0 mmol/L), uric acid (0.68 mg/L) and creatinine (20.7mg/L). Conclusively, the extract may be considered safe at lower concentration (1.6 g/L) but may potentiate serious biochemical alteration if continuously applied at 12.8 g/L.
Key Words: Ackee apple, toxicity, kidney/liver enzymes, catfish