Nephroprotective activity of stem bark extracts of Canarium Schweinfurthii on Acetaminophen-Induced renal injuries in rats
Background: Canarium Schweinfurthii is a tropical plant which has been found useful in the treatment of various ailments such as diabetes mellitus, fever, constipation, malaria,diarrhoea and sexually transmitted diseases. It also possess antioxidant activity and scientific research has shown that medicinal plants with such ability may possess nephroprotective effect. Acetaminophen(paracetamol) is known to be toxic to the
kidney especially during starvation, alcohol ingestion and in patients that take drugs that stimulate the P450 microsomal oxidase enzymes.
Aims and Objectives: This study is aimed at evaluating the protective effects of aqueous and methanol extracts of stem bark of canarium schweinfurthii on the kidney when acetaminophen is used to induce renal injury in rats.
Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight male albino rats weighing 150-200g were used for this study. They were divided into seven groups( A-G) of four rats per group. Two cumulative doses of aqueous extract(AE) and methanol extract(ME) were administered to groups A-D prior to oral administration of acetaminophen(500mg/kg). Groups E-G served as acetaminophen, negative(vehicle) and baseline controls respectively. The negative control group was given 3% tween 80 while the baseline control group was given only distilled water. Drug administration lasted for thirty days.
Results: Blood urea and serum creatinine levels were significantly higher(p<0.01) in acetaminophen and negative control groups compared to baseline control group and the AE and ME groups. Histopathological examination shows that the extracts preserved the renal histoarchitecture while the acetaminophen and negative control groups showed varying degrees of inflammatory cells infiltration, necrosis,tubular casts,
tubular erosion and increased urinary pole.
Conclusion: The fall in plasma levels of urea and creatinine in AE and ME treated groups in the presence of acetaminophen suggests an improvement of renal function which is further supported histologically by a well preserved histoarchitecture in these groups.