The prevalence and control of hypertension among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Nigeria
Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is an endocrine disease with profound vascular morbidity and mortality, and hypertension is known to play a prominent role in this regard. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of hypertension and to assess drug control of hypertension among DM patients seen in Enugu, Nigeria.
Methods: The medical records of 420 adult patients with diagnosis of type 2 DM and hypertension, managed consecutively in the outpatient unit of University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu were studied.
Results: Sixty percent of the diabetic patients had hypertension. Only 12% of these patients had their blood pressure controlled to ≤ 130mmHg and ≤ 80mmHg. About 12.3% of the patients who had hypertension were not on anti hypertensive drug treatment. Most of the patients were placed on 1 or 2 drugs. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors were the most frequently prescribed drug.
Conclusion: This study and similar ones from other parts of Nigeria indicate that the prevalence of hypertension among Nigerians with type 2 DM is high. Clinicians and patients should be reminded that even though blood glucose control is important, aggressive blood pressure control in diabetics is top priority in preventing adverse cardiovascular events which causes the highest mortality in the average population of type 2 diabetics. Appropriate antihypertensive regimen optimizes nonpharmacological therapies, reduces adverse effects on glucose control, minimizes the risk of medication-related side-effects, and provides much needed cardiac and renal protection.
Key words: Hypertension, Prevalence, Diabetes Mellitus, Drug control, Nigerians