Nutritional knowledge, dietary habits and nutritional status of diabetic patients attending teaching hospitals in Lagos, Nigeria
Background: This study assessed the nutritional knowledge, dietary habits and nutritional status of adult diabetic patients attending teaching hospitals in Lagos State, Nigeria.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among adult diabetic patients attending the out-patient clinics of the two Teaching Hospitals in Lagos. Respondents were recruited from the clinics consecutively until the desired sample size (342) was obtained. A pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Dietary habits were assessed using food frequency questionnaire and BMI was assessed following standard procedure and compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) standards. Data was analyzed using IBM SPSS (Version 20). Chi-square and fisher’s exact probability test were used to determine the association between variables. The level of significance was set at p-value less than 5%.
Results: The mean age of the respondents was 59.6 + 13.0 years. Only 125 (37%) of the respondents had good nutritional knowledge. Majority ate three meals every day, 237 (69.3%) and have had dietary counseling, 255 (74.6%). More than half of the respondents, 202 (59.1%) skipped meals, 80 (23.4%) consumed alcohol while only 42 (12.3%) ate fruits and vegetables daily. The commonest food consumed was processed cereals. Majority of the respondents were overweight or obese (74%). Obesity was associated with being female and not having dietary counseling.
Conclusion: Nutritional knowledge and dietary habits were poor while overweight and obesity were high. Dietary counseling will be necessary to improve the dietary pattern and nutritional status of the diabetic patients.
Keywords: Nutritional knowledge; Dietary pattern; Body Mass Index; Diabetic patients; Teaching hospitals; Lagos