Economic Analysis Of Striga (Striga hernonthica ) Management Strategies In Sudan, Northern Guinea And Southern Guinea Savanna Zones Of Nigeria
The witchweed, Striga hernonthica, which attacks cereal crops grown by subsistence farmers, can result in massive yield reduction in maize, sorghum, millet, upland and hungry rice and sugarcane. Estimated crop losses due to Striga in the Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria is up to 5-6 million US dollars annually, with attendant negative impact on the livelihood of about 60% of the farming population. Striga tolerant maize varieties aimed at reducing the losses and increasing farmers\' income have been developed. On-farm demonstrations were conducted in three agro-ecological zones of Nigeria during the 2005 cropping season. The objectives of the demonstrations were to create awareness and promote the adoption of the improved Striga tolerant maize genotype among farmers. The Striga tolerant maize varieties, Acr. 97TZL Comp.1-W, SYN2000EE-W, 99TZEE-Y STR CO, EVDT STR CO, and Acr. 94TZE Comp.5-W was compared with farmers\' varieties. Data were collected through the administration of structured questionnaire, and the data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and budgeting technique. This paper determines the costs and returns and describes farmers awareness and reasons for choice of the improved Striga control technologies.. The costs and returns analysis indicated that labor and fertilizer inputs accounted for greater parts of the total variable costs incurred in all the varieties. Labor cost of the improved Striga tolerant maize varieties and farmers\' varieties were 58, 57, 54, 54% and 61 and 65%, respectively while fertilizer cost were 37, 37, 40, 40%, while the farmers\' varieties were 38 and 41%, respectively in Sudan Savannah. In Northern and Southern Guinea Savannahs, labor accounted for 43 and 36% of improved maize, while the farmers\' variety was represented by 44 and 36%. Fertilizer cost accounted for 50 and 54% of the total cost production for the Striga tolerat maize variety and 51 and 55 % for farmers\' varieties. It was also found that cultivation of Striga tolerant maize varieties ( SYN2000EE-W) and farmers\' variety in Sudan Savanna was not profitable as indicated by a negative gross margin, while 99TZEE-YSTRCO,EVDSTRCO and ACR.94TZE Comp.5-W had positive gross margins. In Northern Guinea and Southern Guinea Savanna the improved Striga tolerant maize variety had positive gross margin of N1, 039.18 and N111, 040.40/ha, while for farmers variety , the gross margin was negative in Northern Guinea Savanna compared to a gross margin of N721, 981.20/ha in Southern Guinea Savanna.
Keywords: Striga, Management strategy, Economic, Analysis and adoption studies
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences Vol. 4 (2) 2006: pp. 60-67