Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics

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Analogy between the standard gauge model of the basic forces and hadronic mechanics

A O Animalu


In this paper we review the standard gauge model of the basic (action-at-a-distance) forces in nature characterized by the conventional gauge-invariant substitution, δγψ→(-i(elhc)Aγ for the electromagnetic field (in the Schrodinger or Dirac equation for the normal hydrogen atom in conventional quantum mechanics), and by δγψ→(- itαAαμ)ψ for the Yang-Mills field in the Weinberg-Glashow-Salam unification of electroweak forces (referred to as “standard” unified gauge model) which are based on conventional Einstein's special relativity theory, and indicate the analogy with the new generalizations of conventional quantum mechanics and the “standard” unified gauge model under the name “hadronic” mechanics to include not only action-at-a-distance forces but also a fifth (non-local, contact/overlap) force, represented by a Hulthen potential, in superdense matter (such as compressed hydrogen atom in a neutron star) and in condensed matter (such as a high-temperature cuprate superconductor). Hadronic Mechanics distinguishes Einstein's special relativity (for relative motion in vacuum) from “extended” relativity and general relativity, and provides a non-perturbative grand unification scheme for the basic forces in nature (including gravitation and the fifth force) that brings not only Oyibo's “grand unified theorem” but also superstring “theory of everything” within its purview. The “hadronic” mechanics representation of the neutron as a compressed H-atom n=(e-, p)HM , known as Rutherford-Santilli neutron, or as (e-vep)sub>HM = n, implies that the p-n, p-p and n-n binding in atomic nuclei of all chemical elements can be understood in terms of “hadronic” (strong interaction) chemistry, with potential application to development and production of clean fuels from “hadronic” energy.

JONAMP Vol. 9 2005: pp. 1-30
AJOL African Journals Online