GC-MS analysis and Mitochondrial Functionality Potential of the Fruits ofTetrapleura tetraptera By Cupric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity Assay
The use of antioxidants has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for the management of mitochondrial dysfunction and other oxidative stress-related degenerative pathologies. Tetrapleura tetraptera is a well-known tree and its fruit is applied traditionally as spice and in the preparation of remedies for different ailments. In this study, the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and mitochondrial functionality potential of T. tetraptera fruits were investigated. GC-MS was used to detect compounds in then-hexane and ethanol extracts of T. tetraptera fruits. Cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assay was used to evaluate the mitochondrial functionality potential of the ethanol extract. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of six compounds in then-hexane extract of T. tetraptera fruits. These compounds were detected in trace quantities, the most abundant being 2,3-dimethyl-3-buten-2-ol (0.04%). The compounds: cis-vaccenic acid (35.37%), n-hexadecanoic acid (28.09%), 6-octadecenoic acid (25.21%), and octadecanoic acid (11.33%) were identified in the ethanol extract of the fruits. Consequently, the ethanol extract was subjected to CUPRAC assay. The ethanol extract exhibited a concentration-dependent high cupric reducing capacity, returning CUPRAC values in the range of 0.090 to 0.403 at the concentration of 10 – 80 μg/ml. This activity was comparable to that of the positive control, naringenin, which showed CUPRAC values of 0.059 – 0.378 at the same concentrations. These results indicate that T. tetraptera fruits possess good antioxidant property as evaluated by other related antioxidant assays. This could be attributed to a synergistic effect of the phytochemical constituents. Hence consumption of T. tetraptera fruits could be beneficial for the prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction and other oxidative stress-related degenerative disorders.
Keywords: Tetrapleura tetraptera, mitochondrial dysfunction, degenerative disorders, CUPRAC, GC-MS, Nigeria