Hepatoprotective activity of aerial part and root extracts of Schwenckia americana Linn. (Solanaceae) against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats
The hepatoprotective potentials of the methanol aerial part (MME) and root (RME) extracts of Schwenckia americana Linn (Solanaceae) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats was studied. Adult Swiss albino rats of either sex were divided into six groups (n=6). Groups I-IV received MME and RME at 200 and 400 mg/kg doses respectively, while Groups V and VI received Silymarin (50 mg/kg) and 3% Tween 80 (2.5 ml/kg). All the animals received 1 ml of 2% CCl4 in normal saline intraperitoneally, 24 h after initiation of drug administration. Treatment was thereafter continued for 7 days after which the CCl4- treated rats were sacrificed and blood samples collected via ocular puncture were used for biochemical assays for liver marker enzymes (alkaline phosphatase, aspartate and alanine transaminase), total reduced glutathione and malondialdehyde. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of MME and RME was also carried out. Results showed that pre-treatment with the extracts protected the challenged rats from carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury as evidenced by the significant (P < 0.05) reduction in serum AST and ALT levels. Similarly, the extracts also caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction in malondialdehyde levels and hence extent of lipid peroxidation. Histopathological studies showed that the plant extracts attenuated hepatocellular necrosis and inflammation and offered considerable preservation of liver hepatocytes especially at the higher dose (400 mg/kg) investigated. MME however gave a higher protective effect than RME. Phytochemical analysis revealed a relatively higher abundance of flavonoids in MME than in RME. Our findings revealed that Schwenckia americana L. possesses some hepatoprotective potentials which appear to be higher in the aerial parts than the roots possibly due to the higher flavonoids content of the fomer.
Keywords: Hepatoprotective, Schwenckia americana, Carbon tetrachloride, liver indices, lipid peroxidation, extracts