In vitro antiradical and antibacterial properties of Acanthospermum and Euphorbia species plants-based recipe
A urinary infection corresponds to the aggression of the tissues of the urinary shaft by one or more microorganisms generating an inflammatory response and signs or symptoms of variable nature and intensity. Urinary tract infections are the first bacterial infections in order of frequency and are therefore a major public health problem.
Objective: To investigate the antiradical and antibacterial properties of a recipe used in traditional medicine in Togo for the treatment of Urinary Tract Infections. Material and methods: The recipe is composed of three plants in the proportion of 35% of Acanthospermum hispidum DC. , 30% of Euphorbia hirta L. and 35% of Euphorbia hyssopifolia L. The antioxidant property was evaluated using the phosphomolybdenum reduction with ascorbic acid as standard antioxidant.
Results: The antibacterial activities were evaluated on 31 pathogenic bacteria isolated from urine. Escherichia coli was the most isolated bacteria strain in infected urines with 64.51 % as yield. The result showed that the hydroethanolic extract of the recipe possesses an antioxidant activity to the order of 31.17 mg EAA/g of extract. By using the butanol/HCl assay with catechin like standard flavones, we found that the extract contains proanthocyanidines evaluated to 0.87% mg EC/g of extract. The result of the antibacterial activity using microdilution assay showed efficacy yield of 91.17%. The MIC and MBC were including between 25 mg/ml - 50 mg/ml for the sensitive bacteria. The antibacterial activity of the hydroethanolic extract of the recipe may be probably due to phenolic content. The result showed a content of total polyphénolic compounds of 20.63 mgEAG/g of extract.
Conclusion: The results revealed that the recipe is endowed with antibacterial activity. The hydro-ethanolic extract of the recipe inhibits to varying degrees the in vitro growth of bacterial strains isolated from urine. It contains a high content of total polyphenols and exerts an average antiradical activity. These results constitute a scientific justification for the traditional use of this remedy, and serve for a database that could guide the development of new drugs in the treatment of urinary tract infections. However, they remain insufficient for a better use of the remedy. It would therefore be essential to assess the toxicity of the combination, carry out a bioguided fractionation of the extracts from the recipe, and determine therapeutic doses and making an ethical phytomedicine.
Keywords: Urinary Tract Infections, antibacterial, antioxidant, polyphenols, plants