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Vehicular Emission Levels and Risk Associated with Street Hawkers and Traffic Wardens in Some Selected Areas of Accra, Ghana


Dr. Lyndon Nii Adjiri Sackey
Mr. Nana Tanoa Dougan
Dr. (Mrs.) Linda Aurelia Ofori

Abstract

Fifty street workers on three main routes in Accra, Achimota- Neoplan, Dzorwulu-N1 and Legon-Shiashie were identified and questionnaires were administered to obtain information for risk assessment on motor vehicle emissions. A study on CO and Hydrocarbon emissions from petrol-  based vehicles and opacity emissions from diesel-fueled vehicles were measured using Emission Combi Tester 6.3, Maha-Luxembourg, from vehicles that came for testing at the Drivers and Vehicles License Authority (DVLA) garage. The cars were categorized into two, based on their ages; cars manufactured before and during 1995 (old-aged) and those manufactured after 1995. The mean concentration determined for CO was 2.8% and 1.9%, hydrocarbon was 467 ppm and 215 ppm and the opacity was 49.2% and 27.8% for old aged cars and cars manufactured after 1995, respectively. The study showed that emissions from old-aged cars were generally higher than those manufactured after 1995. The average daily dose was also higher for street vendors than for traffic wardens. The hazard quotient revealed extreme risks for these workers due to exposure to the emissions. Therefore, regulating vehicle emissions and increasing air pollution awareness is crucial.

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eISSN: 0855-0395