Foreign exploitation of tourism in Zakes Mda’s The Heart of Redness and The Whale Caller

  • Sanjo Ojedoja
  • A.S. Abubakar


The main land of Africa enriches a large amount of natural resources that has been extracted and exploited for years. However, many African countries still rank among the poorest nations on the globe. The exploitation and sale of natural resources to western corporations have not helped Africans escape poverty. In addition, there are social issues that evolved over time from the sale and exploitation of resources. This work presented various forms of contemporary tourism and discusses matters of sustainable tourism development for local communities in Zakes Mda’s fictional account of the Xhosa community in Qolorha-by-Sea. This work therefore addressed issues that are neglected in the postapartheid era through the characters used in the novels.


Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 2227-5460
print ISSN: 2225-8604