Dictionaries and the Standardization of Spelling in Swahili
The paper discusses the role of the dictionary in standardizing the spelling of Swahili. The discussion begins by defining key terms in this paper: spelling and standardization of
spelling. It surveys lexicons written in Swahili between 1811-1990 and records the efforts made to establish spelling conventions for Swahili words in Roman characters, pointing out variant spellings of words written by different authors. The paper focuses on the role played by different lexicons in setting orthography for Swahili 'words, viz. Steere (1870), Krapf (1882), Nettelbladt (1891), Madan (1903), Sacleux (1939), etc. It observes how the lexicons established nonns for words of a language which was hitherto not written in Roman characters. It also shows how lexicons helped to standardize the spelling of words to its current fonn especially after a standard dialect had been selected, pointing out lexicons which exclusively recorded words of the standard language with minimal variants. Finally the paper emphasizes the significance of the dictionary to adhere to the standard orthography.
Keywords: standardization of spelling, spelling conventions, standard ortifography, swahili alphabet, dialectical variations, catchwords, phonetic transcriptions, standard language, spelling system, nonstandard ortifography, standardization process, word-list, lexicon and dictionary