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The aim of this point of view paper is to discuss the challenges and opportunities in teaching and research in the field of human physiology in Ethiopia. The challenges are seen as low availability of physiology teachers, especially those that have PhDs, low research productivity, absence of grants for basic sciences and brain drain. Opportunity for improvement is seen in the emergency of more medical schools in the country. However, close attention to standards of quality, particularly the provision of the full range of inputs required to support teaching and research, is urged.