Main Article Content
River ecosystems are among the most vulnerable aquatic systems in the face of increased, urbanization, land degradation, agricultural activities, and careless disposal of sewage and waste water. This paper presents a review on substantial parameters in water quality assessments for recreational purposes, domestic purposes and drinking. To attest good quality of water, multiple parameters have to be measured. Physical, chemical and biological gnomes are tested to ascertain the water quality. Water quality studies on some Malawian rivers evaluated various constituents such as phosphates, nitrates,pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDs), heavy metals and faecal coliforms. The mean values among the rivers were: PH (6.1-7.8), Phosphates (0.1-4.4mg/L), nitrates (0.05-9.79mg/L), faecal coliforms (300-20408 cfu/100ml), Lead (0.05-0.74mg/L), Cadmium (0.004-0.14mg/L) and Manganese (0.4-1.8mg/L). The reviewed parameters exceeded World Health Organization (WHO) and Malawi Bureau of Standards (MBS) limits. This signifies that the studied rivers to some extent are polluted and probably pose threat to the ecosystem health as well as public wellbeing. Therefore, there is a need to intensify integrated management of water and land to curb further pollution of rivers.