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Evaluation of synthetic maize (<i>Zea mays L.</i>) population for growth and yield in the tropical environment


Wasiu Agunbiade Lamidi
Mosobalaje Abdulsalam Murtadha
Tayo Babatunde Ojo
Grace Oluwaseun Olaniyi

Abstract

The average maize yield per hectare in Nigeria and other Sub-Sahara Africa is always less than in developed nation, hence, this research  aimed to determine growth factors contributing to the yield performance of synthetic maize populations released for farming in Nigeria  and rcommend most yielding variety.Ten synthetic maize varieties obtained from International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan were sown at two seeds per hole in a two row per plot of 5 m length and a spacing of 50 cm intra-row and 75 cm inter-row. The  experimental design was Randomized Complete Block (RCBD) of 10 x 3; ten varieties and three blocks. Data were collected from three  plants in each row selected randomly from the block. The parameters measured were numbers of leaves per plant, plant heights (cm),  stem girths (cm), ear heights (cm), leaf area, cm2 , days to 50% tasselling, days to 50% physiological maturity, cob’s length (cm), cob’s  weight (g), number of grains per cob, number of cob and grain yield (t ha-1 ). Ambient temperatures and wind speeds and directions  were measured at 10.00 h and 14.00 h daily. Both F2TWLY13124 and PVASYNHGACO had same values of 0.45 t ha-1 and 2.625 kg as grain  yield and cob yield plant-1 respectively. However, F2SCA141336 had the highest mean number of leaf plant-1 , 12.20; this was 0.83% more  than F2TWLY100121 that had 12.10 leaf plant-1 . F2TWLY13124 displayed higher number of grain cob-1 and longer cob length 778.50 and  20.59 cm respectively. Environmental factors decreased grain yield via decrease in number of leaf plant-1 , plant height and number of  cob per plant (r= 70.13 to r = 92.31, p<0.05) for the ear height and the cobs’ parameters. F2TWLY13124 and PVASYNHGACO could be  suitable, when used in planting, would improve the yield components and grain yield of maize in the study area and contribute  significantly to increased production. 

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eISSN: 1019-7079