Effect of Thermo-extrusion Process Parameters on Selected Quality Attributes of Meat Analogue from Mucuna Bean Seed Flour
Flour from mucuna beans (Mucuna pruriens) were used in producing texturized meat analogue using a single screw extruder with the intention to monitor modifications on some functional properties of the extrudate. Response surface methodology based on Box Behnken design at three levels of barrel temperature (110, 120, 130ºC), screw speed (100, 120, 140 rpm) and feed moisture content (44, 47, 50%) were used in 17 runs. Regression models describing the effect of process variables on the product quality attributes were obtained. Result obtained showed that the moisture contents of the meat analogue samples decreased from 13.23 to 6.53%. Increasing feed moisture content resulted in extruded meat analogue with a higher density (0.988), water absorption index (WAI) (2.30), oil absorption index (OAI) (2.350), swelling power (3.47) and lower lateral expansion (0.84). Lateral expansion, OAI and swelling power increased as barrel temperature increased with peak values of 1.39, 2.39 and 3.47 respectively, while bulk density and WAI decreased. The product functional responses with coefficients of determination (R2) ranging between 0.658 and 0.894 were most affected by changes in barrel temperature and feed moisture and to lesser extent by screw speed. Optimization results based on desirability concept indicated that a barrel temperature of 120.15°C, feed moisture of 47% and screw speed of 119.19 rpm would produce meat analogue of preferable functional properties.
Keywords: Mucuna bean flour, functional properties, texturized meat analogue, optimization.