Effect of fermentation time on the phenolic, flavonoid and vitamin C contents and antioxidant activities of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) seeds
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of fermentation on the phenolic, vitamin C and total flavonoid contents and antioxidant properties of okra seed. The okra seeds were removed from the pod of matured and fibrous okra that cannot be easily cut with kitchen knife, and was allowed to undergo chance fermentation for 120 h. Samples were taken for antioxidant analysis at 24 h, 72 h and 120 h, respectively. The aqueous extracts of fermented and unfermented okra seeds were obtained and subsequently used for the analysis. The phenolic, vitamin C and total flavonoid contents and the antioxidant properties (ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1, 1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging ability) of the extracts were determined. The results revealed that fermented okra seeds had significantly (p < 0.05) higher phenolic content, vitamin C, total flavonoid and nonflavonoid contents and showed greater antioxidant activities than unfermented okra seed. Okra seeds fermented for 24 h exhibited the highest ferric reducing antioxidant power of 980 mgAAE/100 g and the least IC50 of 2.27 mg/ ml for DPPH free radical-scavenging ability than the others. Okra seeds fermented for 24 hours had significantly (p < 0.05) higher antioxidant activities. The product from fermented okra seeds could be used for the production of functional foods.
Keywords: Okra, phenolic, flavonoid, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and DPPH Free radicalscavenging ability.