Effects of Fermentation on the Fatty Acids, Sterols and Phospholipids Content of Raw and Cooked Walnut for Use as Complementary Food
Walnut contains fatty acids that are essential for infants’ growth and development. This study explored the possibility of fermenting walnuts for use as a complementary food. Raw fermented (RF), cooked fermented (CF), raw unfermented (RUF) and cooked unfermented (CUF) samples of walnuts products were analyzed for fatty acids, phospholipids and sterols for comparison using standard methods. At 12 to 72h, RF had lower pH values compared with CF. The pH values of unfermented analogues were constant at 7. Cooking enhanced palmitic acid while cooking without fermentation enhanced palmititoleic acid. Fermentation significantly enhanced stearic acids and reduced oleic and linolenic acid. Unfermented samples had higher oleic acids and phospholipids than fermented analogues. All samples had comparable values of cholesterol, ergosterol and campesterol. Both fermented and unfermented raw samples had higher values of stig-masterol. Sitosetrol had the highest values in the entire sample. Walnuts either raw or fermented can be utilized as infants’ complementary food to enhance infants’ nutritional status.
Keywords: Walnuts, fermentation, fatty acids, phospholipids