Comparative Studies on the Effects of Leguminous Seed Flours on the Quality of Wheat and Maize Breads
The effects of leguminous seed flours (LSF), namely Brachystegia eurycoma, Detarium microcarpum, and Mucuna sloanei on the quality of wheat and maize breads were investigated. The LSF were incorporated into wheat and maize flours differently at the ratios of (100:0, 99.5:0.5, 99:1.0, 98.5:1.5, 98:2.0) wheat/LSF or maize/LSF flour basis. The composite flours were used to bake breads. The quality of the bread samples evaluated were loaf volume, specific volume, crumb moisture and moisture retention, external and internal appearance, and sensory properties. In wheat bread, the control had 458cm3 and 2.81cm3g-1 loaf and specific volumes respectively which increased to 528cm3 and 3.54cm3g-1, 502cm3 and 3.22cm3g-1, and 502cm3 and 3.13cm3g-1 in breads containing 0.5% of B. eurycoma, D. microcarpum, and M. sloanei respectively, additional increase of LSF resulted in gradual decrease in loaf and specific volumes of the breads. Breads with higher quantities of LSF (1.5 and 2.0%) had higher crumb moisture (33.03 – 35.80%) and retained more moisture during storage than breads with lower quantities of LSF and the control. All the wheat bread samples were generally accepted. In maize bread, the loaf and specific volumes increased with increase in LSF up to 1.5% incorporation of LSF then decreased with further addition of LSF. The maize bread samples were all smaller in volume than the wheat bread samples. The addition of LSF into maize flour also resulted to gradual improvement in the moisture retention of the breads as the quantity of each of the LSF increased.
Keywords: Wheat, maize, hydrocolloids, gluten, bread.