Sensory Quality of Wheat and Cassava Breads as Affected by Some Leguminous Seed Flours
The effects of some leguminous seed flours (LSF) on the quality of wheat and cassava breads were investigated. Three LSF, namely Brachystegia eurycoma, Detarium microcarpum, and Mucuna sloanei were added into wheat flour and cassava flour at 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% of the flour basis. The different flour samples were used to produce bread. Their effects on loaf and specific volumes, crumb moisture, moisture retention, external and internal appearance and the sensory properties of the breads were evaluated. In wheat bread, the specific volume of the control (2.81cm3g-1) was higher (3.13 – 3.54cm3g-1) in breads with 0.5% of the LSF. Further increase in the quantities of LSF to 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% resulted in gradual decrease in loaf volumes and specific volumes of the breads. Cassava breads generally had lower loaf volumes and specific volumes compared to wheat breads. The specific volume of the control was 1.60cm3g-1 and gradually increased to 1.70cm3g-1 with 1.0% of B. eurycoma, 1.80cm3g-1 with 0.5% of D. microcarpum, and 1.46cm3g-1 with 1.5% of M. sloanei respectively, beyond these points a gradual decrease in specific volumes was observed. Moisture levels ranged from 37.18 – 39.06% in wheat breads with higher incorporation of LSF (1.5 and 2.0%) compared to lower LSF addition (0.5 – 1.0%) and the control (36.02 – 36.31%). The crumb moisture of cassava bread with 2.0% of the LSF (36.74 – 37.42%) was also significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of the control (36.17%). All the wheat breads with or without the LSF were accepted by the judges.
Keywords: Wheat, cassava, hydrocolloids, flour, bread.