Evaluation of Chemical Properties of Mistletoe Leaves from Three Different Trees (Avocado, African Oil Bean and Kola)
A comparative evaluation of the chemical composition of mistletoe leaves (Viscum album) growing on three different trees: avocado pear (Persea Americana), African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla) and kola (Kola nitida) was undertaken. Fresh mistletoe leaves were obtained from the three different trees and thoroughly washed with water after which they were dried at room temperature (28 }10C) for 18 days during the dry season (December). After, the dried leaves were shredded and packaged. The samples were then subjected to phyto-chemical, vitamin and mineral analyses using standard methods of analyses. Anthocyanins ranged between 0.3.4 } 0.003 and 0.37 } 0.181 mg/g, Tannin, 2.09 } 1.141 and 3.24}0.003 mg/g, Chlorophyll a, 0.38 } 0.004 and 0.39 } 0.018 mg/g, Chlorophyll b 0.52 } 0.120 and 0.60 } 0.001 mg/g. Vitamin B1 ranged between 0.85 } 0.038 and 0.94 } 0.001 mg/g, Vitamin B2, 0.55 } 0.007 and 0.61 } 0.003 mg/g, Vitamin C, 0.77 } 0.003 and 1.98 } 0.003 mg/g, Folate 0.53 } 0.004 and 0.58 } 0.004 mg/g, Magnesium ranged between 0.21 } 0.002 and 0.92 } 0.003 mg/g, Calcium 2.14 } 0.004 and 2.26 } 0.001 mg/g, Sodium 0.01 } 0.000. Iron, 1.24 } 0.005 and 1.42 } 0.006 mg/g. Sample obtained from oil bean tree showed lower and differed
significantly (p < 0.05) in Anthocyanin and Chlorophyll b with samples obtained from avocado and kola trees. The sample obtained from avocado tree showed higher Tannin content compared with samples obtained from oil bean and kola trees (P . 0.05). There were significant differences (P < 0.05) between the samples in all the vitamins. The minerals showed significant differences in the samples (P < 0.05) except in sodium content which was very low in all the samples. Mistletoe leaves are shown to have a rich chemical composition and could thus serve as a source of these
phyto-chemicals, vitamins and minerals.
Keywords: Trees, mistletoe, phyto-chemicals, vitamins, minerals