Effects of Defatted Jack Bean Flour and Jack Bean Protein Concentrate on Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Bread
This study evaluated the effects of substituting wheat flour with defatted Jack bean flour and Jack bean protein concentrate on bread quality. Jack bean flour milled from the seed nibs was defatted with n-hexane and part of the defatted flour (DJF) extracted in acid medium (pH; 4.5) for protein concentrate (JPC). Both the DJF and JPC were analysed for nutrient composition, and then used to fortify bread. Five bread samples with 0%, 10% and 20% of DJF or JPC were prepared using straight dough procedure, and then analysed for quality characteristics. The DJF and JPC had 28.8% and 49.47% protein, 46.44% and 30.22% carbohydrate, 0.61% and 1.00% crude fibre respectively; and were rich in Ca, Fe, Zn and P. Both DJF and JPC improved quality of bread but JPC conferred better quality. The 20%
DJF and JPC respectively improved protein content of bread from 9.45% to 10. 97% and 11.16%, crude fibre from 2.39% to 5.20% and 5.32%, fat from 2.35% to 7.00% and 6.55%, and ash content from 1.35% to 2.05% and 2.10% but decreased carbohydrate content from 72.12% to 50.45% and 50.39% in the bread samples. All the fortified bread samples had acceptable crumb colour, crumb texture, flavour and loaf volume significantly comparable (p > 0.05) to those of 100% wheat bread. Thus, defatted Jack bean flour and Jack bean protein concentrate is recommended for use in fortifying bread for higher quality.
Keywords: Jack bean flour, Jack bean protein, bread.