The first documented cattle artificial insemination (AI) in Nigeria dated back to 1949. Other recorded cattle artificial insemination in the country could be traced to when the Federal Government of Nigeria under the auspices of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, established Artificial Insemination Unit at the National Animal Production Research Institute (NAPRI) in 1976. Various limiting factors and constraints that prevented artificial insemination from being popular in the country were mentioned. Various causes of infertility in animals were listed. The success or failure of artificial insemination practice as could be affected by microorganisms in the semen, semen preservatives, semen extenders and storage temperatures were discussed in relation to work already done in Nigeria and other countries.
Keywords: Artificial insemination, semen, diseases, livestock