Human Health Risks Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Selected Seafood from Niger Delta Nigeria
The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in selected seafood samples (prawn, periwinkle, crab and oyster) were determined using Gas chromatography flame ionization detector to evaluate the risk on human health through the consumption of the seafood. Probable human health risks associated with the seafood consumption was evaluated using several models. The Dietary Daily Intake (DDI) value for total PAHs, carcinogenic PAHs, carcinogenic toxic equivalents (TEQ) and PAH4 were highest for Oyster with values of 34.40, 2.64, 32.13 and 8.35 mg/kg. Carcinogenic human health risk assessment using carcinogenic toxic equivalents ranged from 1.85 to 32.13 and cumulative excess cancer risk (ECR) showed a value of 0.00147. This indicates that consumption of oyster has a higher potential to cause carcinogenic risks. Comparison of TEQ values for the seafood and the screening value (SV) showed that the screening value were lower indicating tendencies of potential health effect. The calculated values of PAH4 index for all the assessed seafood exceeded the recommended limit of 0.03 mg/kg by European Union for PAHs in fishery products, signifying probable carcinogenic risk from the seafood consumption. The sum of PAHs (∑ PAHs) and carcinogenic PAHs (∑CPAHs) were computed and was highest in oyster with values of 279.01 and 18.56 mg/kg. Some diagnostic ratios were used to discriminate the source of PAHs and the ratio of Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene/( Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene + Benzo(g,h,i)perylene) IndP/ (IndP + BghiP) was greater than 0.2 but less 0.5 for all seafood samples which is an indication of contribution from petroleum and its products.