Physical, sensory and chemical properties of bread prepared from wheat and vitamin A enriched cassava flour blends containing cissus gum
Objective: The study investigated the effect of cissus gum addition on the physical, sensory and chemical properties of bread prepared from wheat and vitamin A enriched cassava flour blends.
Materials and Methods: Cissus gum was extracted from cissus stem and prepared into powder while vitamin A enriched cassava tubers were prepared into flour using standard methods. Different levels (0, 1, 2 and 3% w/w) of cissus gum powder was added to different proportions (100:0, 90:10, 80: 20, 70: 30 and 60:40%) of wheat and vitamin A enriched cassava flours for bread making where 100% wheat bread without cissus gum served as control. Bread specific volume, loaf height was determined using standard procedures while sensory evaluation was carried out using twenty- member trained panelist on a 9-point Hedonic scale. The optimized composite bread was subjected to chemical analysis using standard procedures.
Results: It was found that addition of cissus gum improved specific volume and loaf height of composite bread with an increased crumb colour, texture, taste and overall acceptability scores. The specific volume, loaf height, crumb colour, texture, taste and overall acceptability of composite bread containing 30% vitamin A enriched cassava flour with added 2% cissus gum were not significantly (p<0.05) different from control while other samples differed from the control. Substitution of vitamin A enriched cassava flour up to 30% in wheat flour containing 2% cissus gum improved β- carotene content (by 44.24%) with reduced carbohydrate content compared to 100% wheat bread.
Conclusion: The inclusion of 2% cissus gum powder could serve as a gluten substitute in preparing acceptable wheat bread substituted with vitamin A enriched cassava flour in order to provide a low-cost way of combating vitamin A deficiency in Nigeria.
Keywords: Physical and sensory properties, vitamin A, vitamin A enriched cassava flour, cissus gum