Potassium bromate content of some baked breads sold in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria
Background: Potassium bromate is an additive used by some bakers to make the bread rise rapidly, create a good texture in the finished product and to give bulkiness to the dough.
Objective: The main objective of this work was to assess the potassium bromate residues of some baked breads sold in some selected local government areas (LGAs) of Kano metropolis.
Methods: One hundred and fifty (150) bread samples; (ten from each LGA) were randomly collected from various retail outlets across Dala, Gwale and Kumbotso LGAs located over a five-month period. The samples were analysed for the presence of potassium bromate residues. Spectrophotometric method was used for the detection of potassium bromate residue based on the oxidation of Congo red and crystal violet dyes in a hydrochloric acid, absorbance was read at 515nm and the result was express in Mean ± Standard deviation.
Results: Samples analysed from Dala, Gwale and Kumbotso LGAs showed 72.51±50.26μg/g, 35.08±15.34μg/g and 44.79±21.35μg/g, respectively of potassium bromate. Residual bromate concentration in samples from Dala LGA was found to be significantly higher (p<0.05) than those from Gwale and Kumbotso LGAs. Residual bromate concentration from Gwale and Kumbotso local government areas were not significantly different (p>0.05). Samples were found to contain concentration of potassium bromate above the permissible limit of 0.02μg/g by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
Conclusion and Recommendations: This study high potassium bromate content in breads marketed in Kano metropolis. This suggests that consumers stand the risk of potassium bromate toxicity. There is therefore the need for continuous surveillance and enforcement of the ban on the use of potassium bromate in baking industry.
Keywords: Potassium bromate, residue, bread, Kano, Nigeria