Nutrient Composition, Physical and Sensory Characteristics of Bread Nutrified with Abattoir Waste

  • CA Ikpeme-Emmanuel AJOL
  • IE Offisong
  • EE Ikpeme
Keywords: Abattoir waste, bread, macro/micro nutrient, physical and sensory characteristics.


Objective: The study was designed to determine nutrient composition, evaluate physical and organoleptic properties of bread incorporated with abattoir waste (blood meal) as protein and micronutrient fortifier.

Methods: Fresh abattoir blood meal was collected from Anyigba abattoir, divided into two equal parts, one part kept frozen until used and the other prepared into powder (6.5% moisture content, 180 micron particle size) and packaged into heat sealed HDPE bag for use. Both liquid and powdered abattoir wastes were each incorporated into bread recipe at four (4) different levels: 5.0%, 7.5%, 10.0% and 12.5% of flour, and then baked into bread loaves, making eight experimental samples plus the control, using standard methods and procedures. The physical characteristics and chemical composition of the bread loaves were determined. Their sensory qualities as well as acceptability were also evaluated. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis.

Results: Protein contents of experimental bread loaves increased with increase in abattoir waste levels from 8.98% - 13.31%, showing appreciable increase above 6.89% obtainable in conventional bread. Similarly, the range of values for micronutrients content of the experimental bread were: Fe (14.5-23.1 mg /100g), P (24.8-37.8mg/100g) and I2 (0.100-0.261 mg/100g).They also showed significant increases over and above the respective micronutrient contents of traditional bread. There were little or no variations in physical characteristics, except the weight of bread loaves. The crust and crumb colours of bread loaves containing liquid abattoir waste (at 5.0 – 12.5% levels) and powder (at 5.0% level) were more cherished, though significantly different (P<0.05) from the conventional loaf of bread. The taste and detectable flavour of all experimental bread samples were similar, with characteristic meat flavour, significantly different (P<0.05) from the control. Samples containing both liquid and dried abattoir waste at 5% and 7.5% levels had firm and brittle crumb similar to the conventional bread.

Conclusion: It is possible to use liquid/dried abattoir blood meal to improve the protein and micronutrient (Fe, P, I2) contents of bread, also give acceptable novel bread product.


Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 0189-0913
print ISSN: 0189-0913