Storage Stability and Shelf Life Prediction of Food Formulations from Malted and Fermented Maize (Zea mays l.) Fortified with Defatted Sesame (Sesamun indicum l.) Flour
AbstractObjective: The effect of malting and fermentation on the storage stability and shelf life of maize/sesame food formulations was investigated. Subjects/ Materials and Methods: Various composite flours of malted and fermented maize and defatted sesame were produced by material balancing, to give four food formulations, consisting of unmalted maize + defatted sesame flour (UMS), malted maize + defatted sesame (MMS), unmalted, fermented maize + defatted sesame flour (UFMS) and malted fermented maize + defatted sesame flour (MFMS), all containing 16g protein and 9g fat / 100g food. The storage stability and shelf life of the food formulations were then determined using standard procedures. Results: While the viscosity of the food formulations significantly (p<0.05) decreased during storage, pH, Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) number, Peroxide value (PV), and Total volatile bases (TVB) increased, especially in unfermented products. Moisture content increased significantly (p<0.05) from 8.81 – 10.29%. Total aerobic counts (TAC), moulds, yeasts and Enterobacteriaceae, followed the same trend as the chemical properties, and growth of Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus was particularly slow in fermented products. Unfermented products gave higher acceptability after three months storage as shown by the mean sensory scores, which ranged from 7.07 – 8.33 for UMS, 7.34 – 8.45for MMS, 7.04 – 7.73 for UFMS and 6.82 – 7.74 for MFMS on a 9 – point hedonic scale. Conclusion: Malting and fermentation significantly (p<0.05) reduced the shelf life of the food products, with values of 24.15 months for UMS and 25.23 months for MMS as compared to 17.90 months for UFMS and 18.52 months for MFMS.
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