Effect of Fermentation Methods on the Nutrient Profile and Organoleptic Characteristics of African Oil Bean Seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth)
AbstractObjective: This study evaluated the effect of fermentation method on the nutrient profile and organoleptic characteristics of African oil bean seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth). Materials and Methods: Dry and mature African oil bean seeds were cleaned, boiled, dehulled, cooked, sliced/pulverized and fermented to ugba condiment (ogiri ugba) by applying two fermentation methods namely, traditional (mixed culture) fermented Ugba condiment (TFUC) and pure-culture (experimental) fermented ugba condiment (PFUC). The fermentation period was five days. Traditional fermentation was carried out at ambient (tropical) temperature (29±20C), while pure-culture method involved the use of pure-culture of Bacillus subtilis to ferment the seeds in an incubator at 370C. Traditional fermented ugba slices (TFUS) were used as control. The ugba condiments were used to prepare local soup which was then subjected to sensory evaluation. Results: A significant (P<0.01) increase was observed in crude protein and ash contents, whereas fibre contents decreased significantly. Fatty acid profile of the condiments revealed that boiled unfermented African oil bean seed (UFAOBS), PFUC, TFUC and TFUS had 51.99%, 48.26%, 39.24% and 39.24% as total saturated fatty acid and 47.99%, 51.71%, 57.47% and 57.47% as total unsaturated fatty acid, respectively. There was also an increase in amino nitrogen content ranging from 4.31mg Ng-1 dry wt in UFAOBS to 5.43mg Ng-1 dry wt for TFUS, 6.97mg Ng-1 dry wt for PFUC and 7.25mg Ng-1 dry wt for TFUC. Result of the organoleptic characteristics of the condiments in the prepared soup revealed that pure-culture condiment had the lowest score for taste, aroma and overall acceptability. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that mixed-culture fermentation of African oil bean seed leads to the desirable ugba flavour in soup and also the oil extract was found to be more heart-friendly.
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