Central Diabetes insipidus in a Nigerian child : A case report
Background: Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is rare in children. About 30 - 50% of cases are idiopathic. Early and accurate diagnosis are crucial for safe and effective treatment. This is the first report of Central diabetes insipidus in a child in Nigeria.
Case report: We report a case of central diabetes insipidus in a female toddler who presented at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital with polydipsia and polyuria with a urine specific gravity of 1.000 and normal blood sugar. The diagnosis of CDI was confirmed by her inability to
concentrate urine after a water deprivation test followed by an increase in urine osmolality from 59mOsm/kg to 158mOsm/kg and serum osmolality from 286mOsm/kg to 321Osm/kg following intravenous administration of desmopressin. The patient responded well to oral desmopressin.
Conclusion: Central diabetes insipidus occurs in Nigerian children and responds to oral desmopressin. We recommended high index of suspicion in children with polyuria and polydipsia.
Key words: Central diabetes insipidus, polyuria, polydipsia, desmopressin, Nigerian child