Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus in adolescents secondary school students in Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Background: The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2 DM) in children and adolescents is on the increase, therefore, prevention and early detection are important.
Objective: To assess for easily identifiable risk factors (overweight/obesity, hypertension, Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) and family history of diabetes) for T2DM in adolescents in public secondary schools
Result: Eight hundred and eighty adolescents aged 10 to 19 years were screened and 124(14.1%) were overweight/obese. 457 (51.9%) of students had none of the risk factors while 272(30.9%) had at least one risk factor. Using the American Diabetes Association criteria for identification of those at risk for T2DM, 21(2.4%) were identified. The frequency of presence of risk factors was more in females (3.3%), mid adolescent age group (3.1%) and those with positive family history of diabetes. These findings were however not statistically significant. There was a statistically significant association between presence of hypertension and impaired fasting glucose and risk factor for type 2 DM.
Conclusion: The significant risk factors identified in this study were prehypertension/hypertension and impaired fasting blood glucose.
Key words: Adolescence, Risk factors, Type 2 diabetes mellitus